Descriptive Sensory and Texture Profile Analysis of Woody Breast in Marinated Chicken
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The broiler industry has a variable meat texture issue known as woody breast. This research compares quality attributes of normal (NOR) and severe woody breast (SWB) in 3 experiments. The objective of Experiment I was to evaluate the quality traits of marinated NOR and SWB fillets and their effect on tenderness. A total of 333 fillets were categorized into NOR (n = 180, flexible through the fillet) and SWB (n = 153, rigid through the fillet). Quality traits (drip loss and cook loss %) and tenderness measurements (Warner Bratzler shear force and sarcomere length) were evaluated. SWB fillets had higher drip loss % and higher cook loss % compared to normal fillets (P <0.05). No statistical differences were found in Warner Bratzler shear force and sarcomere length. Experiment II objectives were to develop and validate a sensory texture profile of marinated SWB meat using 6 trained panelists and two different cooking methods, and to evaluate the texture profile analysis (TPA) using the texture analyzer. In two replicates, normal (n = 32) and severe woody breast (n = 32) were assessed and pH, color, cook loss and marination properties were measured. Fillets were cooked (73° C) either on a flat top grill or in an air convection oven. The texture cranial portion of the fillet was used to evaluate texture using trained panelists and TPA. SWB had higher weights compared to NOR fillets (333.8 and 405.7 g, respectively; P <0.05). SWB lower technological properties compared to NOR fillets (P <0.05). No differences were found within the cooking methods (P >0.05). Sensory texture attributes were higher for SWB than NOR fillets (P <0.05) and crunchiness and fibrousness were the main texture attributes to describe SWB fillets. In Experiment III, both oven and grill cooking methods were used to evaluate TPA to determine differences between NOR and SWB either stored fresh (4° C) or frozen (-29° C). No differences were found in cooking methods. TPA of SWB was higher than NOR in fresh and frozen storage (P <0.05). In conclusion, storage temperature and cooking method do not influence the texture of SWB. Crunchy and fibrous are better descriptors for SWB meat instead of tough. TPA is a fast and reliable method to measure texture in chicken breast and is comparable to descriptive sensory results.
Aguirre Cando, Maria Elizabeth (2016). Descriptive Sensory and Texture Profile Analysis of Woody Breast in Marinated Chicken. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from