Foreign Women on the Ancient Mediterranean Sea
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Throughout history, the roles of men and women have been sharply divided due to in part each gender’s strengths and weaknesses, as well as the customs and beliefs of the various cultures in which they resided. Although men and women did not traditionally share the same occupations in classical antiquity, I seek to prove that this trend does not hold true by examining two specific cases in which women held a position of power at sea; Artemisia and Cleopatra. This thesis will provide valuable insight on the roles undertaken by these women on and around the Mediterranean Sea in classical antiquity by examining the works of contemporary authors. I will address how the specific actions of these women directly affected the outcome of history, how their actions were received by their peers, and how their actions were perceived by history. By examining what actions were taken and what perceptions were recorded in history, a better understanding of the roles of women in classical antiquity can be achieved.
Hayden, Holly M (2016). Foreign Women on the Ancient Mediterranean Sea. Undergraduate Research Scholars Program. Available electronically from