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Pre-service Teachers' Knowledge of Reading and Assessment for Providing Differentiated Instruction to Struggling Readers and How This Knowledge Relates to Their Perceptions for the Use of Retention
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The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to examine what preservice teachers (PSTs) understand about reading and assessment processes within the RTI framework to assist struggling readers; (2) to determine whether a relationship exists between PSTs’ knowledge of reading and assessment to inform instruction differentiation and their perceptions regarding retention. Participants included 150 PSTs. Groupings of students included both the number of reading courses and the number of assessment courses taken. A survey was administered, which included three attitude measures using Likert-type items and multiple-choice items to assess knowledge. The three attitude measures required PSTs to rate their perceptions in the following areas: (a) use of grade retention, (b) interventions to assist struggling readers, and (c) confidence in using assessments and assessment data common to RTI models. The multiple-choice section of the survey consisted of items representing three categories – knowledge of reading for instruction; knowledge of assessment; and knowledge of RTI. Factorial MANOVAs were computed to examine the effect of the number of courses taken in reading and the number of courses taken in assessment on PSTs’ perceptions and knowledge. Statistically significant findings were found on the tests of between-subject effects for the number of courses taken in both reading and assessment and PSTs’ knowledge of reading instruction. PSTs’ knowledge of reading instruction was found to be significantly higher for those who reported taking more than two reading courses than for those who reported taking two courses or less. The opposite finding was evident for assessment courses taken. PSTs’ knowledge of reading instruction was found to be significantly higher for those who reported taking only one assessment course than for those who reported taking more than one course in assessment. Correlational analysis found a significant, moderate, positive correlation between PSTs’ knowledge of reading instruction and their knowledge of assessment. A significant, positive, but small correlation was also found between PSTs’ perceptions related to grade retention and their knowledge of RTI.
Response to Intervention (RTI)
Taylor, Brenda Kaye (2016). Pre-service Teachers' Knowledge of Reading and Assessment for Providing Differentiated Instruction to Struggling Readers and How This Knowledge Relates to Their Perceptions for the Use of Retention. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from