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Flooding Experiments with Steam/Water and Air/Water at Elevated Pressure in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube
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An experimental investigation to acquire ﬂooding data using steam/water and air/water ﬂuid pairs at elevated pressures was conducted. This research provides the ﬁrst ﬂooding data above atmospheric pressure in large diameter vertical tubes and can be used to improve the ﬂooding models in one-dimensional system codes. A stainless steel test section consisting of a 3-inch inner diameter tube was modiﬁed to permit ﬂooding experiments up to 60 psia for air/water experiments at 25 ◦C and 30 psia for steam/water experiments at near saturated conditions. Extensive modiﬁcations were made to the test facility to allow for high pressure testing, including the addition of a large compressed air supply, two plate type heat exchangers, and extensive instrumentation. The air/water and steam/water ﬂow paths are nearly identical, yielding a test facility capable of providing data that can be directly compared while avoiding inﬂuences from complicated geometry eﬀects. The data at higher pressures suggest that the momentum transfer necessary for the onset of ﬂooding is achievable for lower superﬁcial velocities as the gas density increases. Flooding characteristics are presented in terms of the Kutateladze number, and the eﬀect of ﬂuid properties on ﬂooding, such as density and surface tension, are discussed. If condensation is accounted for, the saturated steam/water data at 30 psia closely trends with the air/water ﬂooding data. This research provides fundamental data that can be used to address the pressure scaling deﬁciencies in ﬂooding correlations for reactor safety codes and also evaluate the applicability of air/water data for steam/water applications.
Wynne, Nicholas Alan (2015). Flooding Experiments with Steam/Water and Air/Water at Elevated Pressure in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from