Nonlinear Optical Effects on Retinal Damage Thresholds in the 1200-1400 nm Wavelength Range
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Recent changes in the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits for near-infrared (NIR) laser exposures are analyzed in light of nonlinear optical phenomena. We have evaluated the thresholds for supercontinuum (SC) generation for ultra-short (femtosecond) laser exposures in the NIR region and compared these values with the MPEs listed in the American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers 2014 Edition (ANSI Z136.1-2014). Due to the strong increase in ocular absorption in the 1.2 to 1.4 micrometer (i.e. 1200-1400 nm) range, evaluation of the SC generation phenomenon is necessary because any shift in laser energy within the eye to shorter wavelengths (i.e. greater frequency) could lead to unforeseen increases in hazards to the retina. The findings of this research do in fact indicate a shift in laser energy to shorter wavelengths for femtosecond pulsed lasers. In addition, an analysis involving spectral measurements through a water cuvette leads to estimations involving the eye configuration that show radiant exposures exceeding the ANSI thresholds for visible wavelengths. The implications of these findings are such that enough NIR energy is converted to visible energy near the retina when dealing with femtosecond pulsed lasers, warranting further studies in examining what the effects caused by nonlinear optical phenomena due to ultrashort pulsed lasers have on MPE thresholds established for eye safety.
SubjectRetinal Damage Threshold
Nonlinear Optical Effects
Maximum Permissible Exposure
White Light Radiant Exposures
Echeverria, Francesco Jozac (2015). Nonlinear Optical Effects on Retinal Damage Thresholds in the 1200-1400 nm Wavelength Range. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from