Theory versus experiment of the rotordynamic and leakage characteristics of smooth annular bushing oil seals
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This thesis provides a comparison of experimental rotordynamic coefficients for laminar, smooth bushing oil seals to theoretical predictions from XLLubeGT and XLAnSeal. The experimental results come from a new test rig developed at the Turbomachinery Laboratory at Texas A&M University. The two software programs were developed to predict the static and dynamic characteristics of seals. XLLubeGT is a Reynolds equation based program while XLAnSeal is based on a bulk-flow Navier- Stokes model that includes temporal and convective acceleration terms. XLAnSeal was used to predict the added-mass terms of the seals since XLLubeGT assumes those terms to be zero or negligible. The data used for input into the two seals code was the actual measured conditions from the test rig. As part of the input parameters, inlet inertia effects and thermal gradients along the seal were included. Both XLLubeGT and XLAnSeal have the capability to analyze straight bore seals with different inlet and outlet clearances essentially a tapered seal but seal expansion caused by the radial differential pressure across the seal bushing was not included. Theoretical and experimentally determined dynamic characteristics include stiffness, damping, inertia terms and Whirl Frequency Ratio (WFR). Seal static characteristics are also reported. They include: leakage, shaft center line loci and Reynolds numbers. Test conditions include three shaft speeds: 4000, 7000 and 10,000 rpm, three test pressures: 21, 45 and 69 bar [300, 650, and 1000 psi] and multiple eccentricities from 0.0 to 0.7. The results for the dynamic characteristics show good correlation of the experimental data to the theoretical values up to an eccentricity of about 0.5. At higher eccentricities, the theory generally under-predicts the dynamic characteristics. Inertia terms are greatly under-predicted. The results for the static characteristics also show good correlation to the experimental data, but they also have a tendency to be under-predicted at higher eccentricities.
Culotta, Vittorio G. (2004). Theory versus experiment of the rotordynamic and leakage characteristics of smooth annular bushing oil seals. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from