Phenolic Compounds of Sorghum, their Chemopreventive Properties and Absorption
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Sorghum contains many phenolic compounds which have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties as well as natural colorants in foods. Phenolic compounds of stalks, sheaths, leaves, glumes and grains from tan (ARTx631/RTx436), red (Tx2911) and purple (Tx3362) sorghum plants were characterized by UPLC-MS/MS. Antiproliferative properties of selected sorghum extracts were evaluated using HT-29 colon cancer cells and absorption of their polyphenolics was determined by a Caco-2 in vitro model system. Phenolic acids, flavones, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and chalcones were found in all plant components. Phenolic acids were predominant in the stalks, sheaths and grains of all sorghum types. Flavone glycosides were predominant in leaves, sheaths and stalks while flavone aglycones in glumes and grains. 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins and chalcones were mostly found in sheaths, leaves, glumes and grains of Tx2911 (red) and Tx3362 (purple) genotypes. Sorghum leaves showed high levels of flavone glycosides while glumes had high levels of flavones aglycones. Glume extract of ATx631/RTx436 (tan) and Tx2911 genotypes had the strongest antiproliferation activity (IC_(50) = 85-178 µg/ml), these extracts had also the highest levels of flavone aglycones (19.6-49.8 mg/g). Absorption of flavones (30.4-42.3 %) was higher than 3-deoxyantocyanidins (1.4-11.3%), while absorption of methoxylated 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (11.3%) was higher than non-methoxylated 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (1.4 – 1.6 %). Flavones had high absorption compared to other sorghum phenolics suggesting that sorghum flavone aglycones are more bioavailable than other sorghum phenolic compounds. Consequently, sorghum glumes could be used as used as a source of phytochemicals to increase value of sorghum crop.
Taleon Alban, Victor Manuel (2013). Phenolic Compounds of Sorghum, their Chemopreventive Properties and Absorption. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from