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Influence of an Intra-articular Lipopolysaccharide Challenge on Markers of Inflammation and Cartilage Metabolism and the Ability of Oral Glucosamine to Mitigate these Alterations in Young Horses
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This project established an in vivo method to identify and manipulate expression of markers of osteoarthritis (OA). Specifically, strategies that predictably induce joint inflammation to evaluate dietary methods of OA prevention in young horses have yet to be accomplished. Therefore, the 3 studies described herein were conducted to determine effectiveness of an intra-articular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on markers of inflammation and cartilage metabolism in young horses and potential of dietary glucosamine hydrochloride (HCl) to mitigate these alterations. In the first study, horses were challenged with 0.25 ng or 0.50 ng of intra-articular LPS solution or lactated ringer’s solution (control). Injection of LPS increased inflammation based on synovial prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations. Carboxypeptide of type II collagen (CPII), a maker of type II collagen synthesis, also increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, clinical parameters of health were not influenced and remained within normal ranges. Carpal circumference increased in response to repeated arthrocentesis. Lameness scores increased with LPS injection when compared to controls. This model of joint inflammation (0.5 ng LPS) was used in the second study to evaluate potential chondroprotective effects of oral glucosamine HCl supplementation in yearling horses. Specifically, the oral absorption of glucosamine HCl versus saline was determined by nasogastric dosing and incorporation of dietary glucosamine HCl into plasma and synovial fluid over time. Plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of glucosamine tended to increase over the 98-d period. In the third study, yearlings were challenged with intra-articular LPS to determine the potential of glucosamine HCl to mitigate inflammation when compared to contralateral joints. Injection of LPS increased synovial PGE2 and cartilage biomarkers CPII and collagenase cleavage neopeptide (C2C), a marker of type II collagen degradation. Oral glucosamine HCl decreased PGE2 and C2C concentrations, but increased levels of CPII. Results of these 3 studies provide a clearer understanding of joint inflammation and cartilage turnover in young horses and demonstrated a potential role of oral glucosamine to mitigate these effects and possibly prevent OA in horses.
Lucia, Jessica Lauren (2013). Influence of an Intra-articular Lipopolysaccharide Challenge on Markers of Inflammation and Cartilage Metabolism and the Ability of Oral Glucosamine to Mitigate these Alterations in Young Horses. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from