Sorghum tannins: Interaction with Starch and its Effects on in vitro Starch Digestibility
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Most of the calories in cereal foods come from starch. Decreasing starch digestibility is fundamental to prevent obesity and diabetes. This study investigated interactions of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins-PA) and other sorghum phenolic compounds with starch molecules and their effect on in vitro starch digestibility. High tannin (predominant in large molecular weight PA, 80%), black (monomeric polyphenols) and white (low in polyphenols) sorghum phenolic extracts were cooked with starches varying in amylose content. Starch pasting properties, polyphenol profile and in vitro starch digestibility were evaluated. Unlike other treatments, samples with tannin phenolic extracts had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower setback in the test using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) compared to control. The same treatments had the least extractable phenol and PA contents after cooking with all starches. These evidences suggest interactions between starch molecules and PA. Furthermore, after mixing tannin phenolic extracts with pure amylose/amylopectin, extractable polymeric PA was in much lower concentration (62% less) in presence of amylose compared to amylopectin. This drop in concentration increased to 85% when purified tannin extract (90% polymeric PA) was used. This indicates a stronger interaction between amylose and large molecular weight PA. When high amylose starch was used in an autoclave cooking/cooling technique, the RS content of control (26.4%) was similar (P > 0.05) to samples with black phenolic extracts (27%); samples with tannin phenolic extracts increased RS to about 40%. The RS increased to 46% when purified tannin extract was used. All these evidences suggest that sorghum condensed tannins, specifically the polymeric PA, directly interacted with amylose, increasing RS content, whereas the monomeric polyphenols did not. This study opens opportunities to use tannin sorghum to develop products for diabetics and weight control, high in dietary fiber and natural dark color. In the other part of this project, polyphenols from black and tannin sorghum bran were extracted using an Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE) and eco-friendly solvents such as water, and mixtures ethanol/water. ASE at 120 and 150 degrees C using 50 and 70% ethanol/water was efficient in extracting as much phenols (45 mg GAE/g) and 12% more antioxidants (628 μmol TE/g) from black sorghum compared to conventional methods using aqueous acetone and acidified methanol. Therefore, ASE extracts from black sorghum could be used in beverages and in colorants containing high antioxidant content.
Ribeiro de Barros, Frederico (2012). Sorghum tannins: Interaction with Starch and its Effects on in vitro Starch Digestibility. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from