Improving the Flavor of Ground Beef by Selecting Trimmings from Specific Locations
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We hypothesized that carcass subcutaneous fat location would affect sensory and quality traits. Five carcass fat sources were tested: brisket, chuck, plate, flank, and round. Ground beef was formulated using each fat source and extra-lean beef trim (>95% lean) to contain 80% lean trim and 20% fat trim. Patties (100 g) were evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition and consumer evaluation. Flavor was analyzed using a Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) on the headspace above a cooked (74 degrees C) patty in a heated (60 degrees C) 473 mL glass jar with a solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) fiber. Color, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay (TBARS), consumer sensory, and cook/freezer loss data showed no differences (P > 0.05) among carcass locations. Percentage stearic acid was lower (P = 0.044) in the brisket than in the chuck and flank. The brisket was higher in percentage cis-vaccenic acid (P = 0.016) and in the saturated fatty acid to monounsaturated fatty acid ratio (P = 0.018), and lower (P = 0.004) in the percentage of total saturated fatty acids than all other sources of subcutaneous fat. Butanedione was highest (P = 0.013) in the flank and plate fat. Brisket tended to be higher (P = 0.054) than flank, plate, and round in 1-octen-3-ol. Brisket was higher (P = 0.008) than chuck, flank, and round, but not different (P > 0.05) than plate in octanedione. Brisket was higher (P = 0.003) than all other sources for beefy aroma. Flank was higher (P = 0.047) than chuck and round for chemical aroma. Brisket was higher (P = 0.004) than all other sources except flank for floral aromas. Plate was higher (P = 0.029) than all other sources for heated oil aromas. For secondary aroma descriptor, round was higher (P < 0.001) than flank, plate, and chuck for dairy. While differences in some key fatty acids and aromatics existed among carcass locations, when the fat was diluted with a common lean source, fat source did not have a negative effect on sensory or quality traits. Therefore, formulating ground beef using subcutaneous fat from specific locations on a carcass may improve the beef aromatics without negatively affecting sensory or quality traits.
freezer and cook loss
Harbison, Amanda 1989- (2012). Improving the Flavor of Ground Beef by Selecting Trimmings from Specific Locations. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from