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Continuous Control in Buildings with Bond Graphs
Global warming caused by CO2 emissions as a result of energy consumption, shows its growing effects on the average temperatures worldwide. Office buildings are responsible for a major share of the 40% of the energy consumption of the built environment. We look at a way to minimize the environmental load of office buildings and at the same moment improve indoor air quality and comfort for the occupants of offices. Therefore the end-users behavior of building occupants needs to be taken into account. New design approaches are needed to implement the behavior of occupants of buildings. Improvement of the energy consumption is made possible by agent-based systems for energy management in buildings. Human-in-the-loop Technology: a technology to implement user behavior is developed. By starting from the human perspective and use available and new technology, the outcome was focused on the ability to provide improved individual comfort for the end user. As the end-users become more important within energy infrastructure of buildings, the focus is on the occupant and therefore a bottom-up design approach has been developed. In the final article an example on the level of workplace will be presented.
Zeiler, W. (2011). Continuous Control in Buildings with Bond Graphs. Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu). Available electronically from