Formation and Decay of Toroidal and Bubble Nuclei and the Nuclear-Equation of State
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Multifragmentation, following the formation of toroidal and bubble nuclei, is observed with an improved Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model for central Mo-92 + Mo-92 collisions. With a stiff equation of state, simultaneous explosion into several nearly equal fragments in a ringlike manner occurs due to the formation of metastable toroidal nuclei. In contrast, with a soft equation of state, simultaneous explosion into several nearly equal fragments in a volumelike manner occurs due to the formation of metastable bubble nuclei. Experimental signatures for the formation of these exotic shapes are discussed.
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