Low differential pressure and multiphase flow measurements by means of differential pressure devices
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The response of slotted plate, Venturi meter and standard orifice to the presence of two phase, three phase and low differential flows was investigated. Two mixtures (air-water and air-oil) were used in the two-phase analysis while a mixture of air, water and oil was employed in the three-phase case. Due to the high gas void fraction (α>0.9), the mixture was considered wet gas. A slotted plate was utilized in the low differential pressure analysis and the discharge coefficient behavior was analyzed. Assuming homogeneous flow, an equation with two unknowns was obtained for the multi-phase flow analysis. An empirical relation and the differential response of the meters were used to estimate the variables involved in the equation. Good performance in the gas mass flow rate estimation was exhibited by the slotted and standard plates for the air-water flow, while poor results were obtained for the air-oil and air-water oil flows. The performance of all the flow meter tested in the analysis improved for differential pressures greater than 24.9 kPa (100 in_H2O). Due to the tendency to a zero value for the liquid flow, the error of the estimation reached values of more than 500% at high qualities and low differential pressures. Air-oil and air-water-oil flows show that liquid viscosity influences the response of the differential pressure meters. The best results for high liquid viscosity were obtained in the Venturi meter using the recovery pressure for the gas flow estimation at differential pressures greater than 24.9 kPa (100 in_H2O). A constant coefficient Cd was used for the low differential pressure analysis and results did show that for differential pressure less than 1.24 kPa (5 inH2O) density changes are less than 1% making possible the incompressible flow assumption. The average of the computed coefficients is the value of Cd.
Justo, Hernandez Ruiz, (2004). Low differential pressure and multiphase flow measurements by means of differential pressure devices. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from