Identification of Significantly Regulated Genes in the Estrogen Induced Gallus gallus Liver Over a 24-Hour Time Course
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In birds, estrogen is a strong stimulator of gene programs that regulate the formation of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Apolipoprotein-B (ApoB) is an integral part of very low density lipoproteins. In mammals, the rate of ApoB synthesis is controlled by post-translational means. In contrast, estrogen treated birds show changes in ApoB transcript level; in a natural setting, the bird?s metabolism and transcription are in great flux due to yolk formation. Besides the ApoB gene, the entire complement of genes that is necessary to form a VLDL is not known. To determine the genes that play a role in the formation of VLDL 7-10d old chicks were injected with estrogen at several time points over a 24hr period. Following exsanguinations by cardiac puncture, livers were removed and RNA was extracted. The RNA was quantified and hybridized to microarrays using a dual-dye system. Slides were scanned and analyzed, and features were extracted. To qualify microarray results, quantitative real time PCR (q-RTPCR) was done on a selection of genes. Previous studies had shown that approximately 200 genes are upregulated by the treatment of hormone naive chickens with estrogen. As a result of our liver transcriptional profiling, we identified 1,528 genes at 1.5hrs, 1,931 genes at 3hrs, 2,398 genes at 6hrs, 2,356 at 12hrs, and 1,713 genes at 24hrs following estrogen exposure. We determined that these regulated genes include those responsible for the transcription of RNA used to create the gene products that serve as components of VLDL itself or that act in VLDL assembly. These include genes encoding structural proteins, like ApoB, and genes encoding assembly-related proteins. Of the differentially expressed genes as compared to time 0, there were approximately 30% which were unannotated with regards to function limiting conclusions. We hope to determine the function of these genes and to annotate them based on this information.
Trojacek, Erica (2011). Identification of Significantly Regulated Genes in the Estrogen Induced Gallus gallus Liver Over a 24-Hour Time Course. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from