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Warner-Bratzler Shear evaluations of forty bovine muscles
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Twenty beef carcass sides varying in USDA quality and yield grades were selected from the Rosenthal Meat Science and Technology Center, Texas A&M University. Forty individual muscles were dissected from each side. The muscles were cut into as many one-inch (2.54 cm) steaks as possible. Each steak was numbered to identify muscle and location within muscle. Steaks were packaged, allowed to age for fourteen days, then frozen until cooked. Steaks were thawed, cooked, chilled and evaluated for tenderness by the use of a Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) machine. Three muscles with multiple regions were analyzed to determine if there were differences (P < .05) in WBS values across regions. The triceps brachii differed (P < .05) in WBS values between the long and lateral heads, and the gluteobiceps differed in WBS values (P < .05) between the vertebral, cranial, and caudal portions. The trapezius pars cervicus did not differ between the cranial and caudal portions. Larger muscles were evaluated for WBS values between steaks to determine location effects within muscles. The deep pectoral, infraspinatus, triceps brachii (long head), psoas major, and semimembranosus all had significant location effects. Muscles were allocated into "very tender," "tender," "intermediate," or "tough" categories. Those muscles considered "very tender" (WBS < 3.2 kg) were the diaphragm, spinalis dorsi, infraspinatus, iliacus, psoas major, serratus ventralis, biceps brachii, vastus medius, and internal abdominal oblique. The muscles considered "tender" (3.2 kg < WBS < 3.9 kg) were the tensor faciae latae, superficial pectoral, teres major, longissimus lumborum, subscapularis, biventor, longissimus thoracis, splenius, rectus femoris, gluteus medius, gracilis, rhomboideus, complexus, and triceps brachii. The muscles classified as "intermediate" (3.9 kg < WBS < 4.6 kg) were the gluteobiceps, gastrocnemius, supraspinatus, rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, semitendinosus, adductor, vastus lateralis, deltoideus, latissimus dorsi, transverses abdominis, and semimembranosus. The muscles referred to as "tough" (WBS > 4.6 kg) were the trapezius pars cervicus, extensor carpi radialis, brachialis, deep pectoral, and superficial digital flexor. Of all the muscles sampled, the diaphragm was the most tender (WBS = 2.05 kg), and the superficial digital flexor was the toughest (WBS = 7.75 kg).
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 34-36).
Issued also on microfiche from Lange Micrographics.
Belew, Jason Burl (2000). Warner-Bratzler Shear evaluations of forty bovine muscles. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from
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