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Glutamine and zinc methionine supplementation to dairy calves
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Glutamine and zinc play an important role in immune functions of animals. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of L-glutamine or zinc methionine supplementation on 1) plasma concentrations of minerals in dairy calves, and 2) plasma concentrations of amino acids, urea, protein and glucose, as well as body temperature and growth rates in Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic calves. Twenty healthy Holstein bull calves (3 weeks old) were assigned randomly into 4 treatment groups with 5 animals each. The calves were fed milk-replacer diets supplemented with 0 or 1% L-glutamine, 1% glycine, or zinc methionine (40 ppm zinc) for a 45-day-period. Next, calves were subjected to intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (5.2 g/kg body wt). Rectal temperature increased in all calves after endotoxin administration, but dietary glycine supplementation delayed the onset of fever. A biphasic fever response occurred in glutamine-supplemented calves. Dietary supplementation had no effect on body weights or plasma concentrations of minerals. Plasma protein concentrations were higher in glutamine- or glycine-supplemented calves at 30 min and 48 h post LPS administration, compared with control animals. Endotoxin increased plasma urea concentrations in all calves with the exception of glycine- supplemented calves. In contrast, plasma glucose concentrations decreased markedly in glutamine-supplemented calves earlier than other groups. In all calves, plasma concentrations of alumine, arginine, branched-chain amino acids, glutamate, glycine, methionine, serine, threonine, trytophan, tyrosine, and crystalline decreased. Dietary supplementation of 1% glutamine had no effect on plasma glutamine concentrations. Interestingly, glutamine supplementation inhibited the marked decline in plasma concentrations of arginine and taurine in septic calves. Dietary zinc methionine supplementation had no effect on plasma concentrations of methionine. Endotoxin administration increased plasma concentrations of omitting and taurine during the early phase of septic response, while plasma concentrations of asparate and histidine did not change significantly. These results demonstrate 1) that plasma concentrations of most amino acids, glucose, and urea decrease in dairy calves post endotoxin administration, and 2) that dietary glutamine or glycine supplementation modulates the fever response of dairy calves to endotoxin infection and may be beneficial for reducing whole body amino acid catabolism in septic animals.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 78-88).
Issued also on microfiche from Lange Micrographics.
Simon, Robin Renee (1999). Glutamine and zinc methionine supplementation to dairy calves. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from
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