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Development of a low fat wheat tortilla: optimization of lipids, emulsifiers, and fat replacers
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A low fat tortilla was developed by optimizing lipids, emulsifiers and fat replacers. Hot-press wheat tortillas were prepared from wheat flour with 11.6% protein. Lard, pie shortening (PS), all-purpose shortening (AP), liquid frying oil (LF) and salad oil (SO) were used at levels of 1, 4, 7, 10 and 15%. Tortillas were made with 0.5 and 1 .0% glyceryl monostearate (GM), succinylated monoglycerides (SMG), ethoxylated monoglycerides (EMG) and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides (DATEM). Finally, tortillas were made with commercially available, carbohydrate-based fat replacers: potato maltodextrins, tapioca maltodextrins, pregelatinized rice flour, modified rice solids, and pea starch. Dough water absorption, mixing time, mixability and machinability were determined. Tortillas were evaluated for puffing during baking, weight, moisture, diameter, rollability, penetrability and organoleptic properties. As lipid levels decreased, mixing time decreased, water absorption increased and mixability decreased. As lipid levels decreased tortilla puffing and diameter decreased, weights were similar and moisture increased. Rollabilities of tortillas containing 4-15% lipid were better than those containing 1% lipid. Rollabilities of tortillas containing lard, PS and SO were better than those containing AP and LF. Textures of tortillas containing > 7% lard were significantly worse that those with <4% lard. Tortillas containing > 4% lard were ranked higher than those containing 1% lard. Tortillas containing SMG had better dough mixability and larger diameter tortillas during hot pressing than tortillas containing EMG or DATEM. Rollabilities of tortillas containing 1 .0% SMG, GM and DATEM were better than the control after ten days of storage. Rollabilities of tortillas containing 0.5 and 1.0% SMG were similar. Doughs containing fat replacers had increased water absorptions and excellent machinability. Rollabilities of tortillas containing tapioca maltodextrins were significantly worse than other treatments. Rollabilities of both control (1% lipid and 10% lipid) tortillas and tortillas containing potato maltodextrins were better than other tortillas. Textures of tortillas containing 10% lipid were better than other treatments organoleptically evaluated. Tortillas containing 10% lipid, 1% lipid and potato maltodextrins were ranked similarly.
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Includes bibliographical references.
Dollak, Christina (1993). Development of a low fat wheat tortilla: optimization of lipids, emulsifiers, and fat replacers. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from
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