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dc.creatorAdams, Suzanne Micheleen_US
dc.descriptionDue to the character of the original source materials and the nature of batch digitization, quality control issues may be present in this document. Please report any quality issues you encounter to, referencing the URI of the item.en_US
dc.descriptionIncludes bibliographical references.en_US
dc.description.abstractProperties of all-beef patties containing 20% fat and low-fat (10%) beef patties containing water, carrageenan, encapsulated salt, and hydrolyzed vegetable protein with no additional additives (control) or with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), sodium ascorbate (SA), sodium lactate (SL), STPP and SA, or SL and SA were compared. Control low-fat patties had lower cooking yields than high- fat patties. STPP and SL improved cooking yields. The control low-fat patties were harder and springier than the high-fat patties and the additional additives did not have significant effects (p>0.05) on the texture of low-fat patties. Precooked, oxygen-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC)-wrapped low-fat control patties and high-fat control patties had similar values of 2-thiobarbituric acid(TBA)-reactive substances after 6 days of refrigerated storage, but the low-fat control patties had better flavor than high-fat patties when either freshly cooked or stored. STPP was an effective antioxidant and was synergistic with SA as measured by TBA values on either a fat weight or sample weight basis and by sensory scores. SA alone reduced TBA values on either a fat weight or sample weight basis, but did not significantly improve flavor. SL reduced TBA values on a sample weight basis in refrigerated patties, regardless of packaging method, and in frozen, vacuum-packaged patties, but increased the values on a fat weight basis in frozen, PVC-wrapped patties. SL had no effect on TBA values on a sample weight basis of precooked, PVC-wrapped frozen patties or on TBA values on a fat weight basis of precooked, vacuum-packaged frozen patties or of precooked, PVC-wrapped refrigerated patties. SL did not improve flavor, but the combination of SA and SL improved sensory scores of stored patties. Control low-fat patties and high-fat patties did not have significantly different aerobic microbial plate counts. SL and SA both had antimicrobial effects, but STPP did not affect aerobic microbial counts. There was an increase in nonheme iron during refrigerated storage which was most pronounced in control low-fat patties. However, nonheme iron did not increase upon frozen storage.en_US
dc.publisherTexas A&M Universityen_US
dc.rightsThis thesis was part of a retrospective digitization project authorized by the Texas A&M University Libraries in 2008. Copyright remains vested with the author(s). It is the user's responsibility to secure permission from the copyright holder(s) for re-use of the work beyond the provision of Fair Use.en_US
dc.subjectfood science and technology.en_US
dc.subjectMajor food science and technology.en_US
dc.titleDevelopment of low-fat ground beef patties with extended shelf-lifen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US science and technologyen_US
dc.format.digitalOriginreformatted digitalen_US

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