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Development and evaluation of a culture system suitable for the production of Gulf Killifish (Fundulus grandis Baird and Girard) for live bait in the thermal effluent of a power plant
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Investigations concerning spawning, hatching and grow-out of Fundulus grandis were conducted in 0.1-ha brackish water ponds in Texas. Studies focused on developing economical feeds, increasing production through improved management techniques and evaluation of economic feasibility. Eggs collected on spawning mats were hatched and fry stocked in grow-out ponds when they average .5 g. The bimodal spawning cycle extended from February to October and highest egg production was in late March-early April and late August-early September. In ponds, spawning activity did not increase at lunar syzygy but spawning readiness increased especially among wild fish. Increasing the ratio of females to males among brood fish resulted in increased egg production. Harvested eggs per 0:1-ha pond for 1M:1F (male:female), 1M:2F and 1M:3F sex ratios were 31,648, 36,546 and 41,817, respectively. Egg to fry survival averaged 76%. Embryonic development and larval survival in the laboratory were not affected by salinities from 10-30 ppt. Newly hatched larvae acclimated to 23 C could withstand prolonged exposure to temperatures up to 38 C. Acclimation and test salinities had a significant effect on the response to elevated temperatures. In ponds stockes at 200,000 0.5 g fry/ha, marketable size (3.15 g and 63.7 mm TL) was reached in 70 days when either trout feed, minnow feed or a 1:1 mixture of cottonseed meal and wheat shorts at 5% of body weight daily were fed. Lack of a significant difference in growth (P (LESSTHEQ) 0.05) between fish fed trout feed and the 1:1 mix possibly indicated the importance of natural food in pond production. Survival averaged 85.5% with 1.91 found conversion ratio and 538.8 kg/ha production. Fish obtained from Alabama did not perform as well as Texas fish in egg production, fry survival and growth to a marketable size, indicating either detrimental effects resulting from lower spawning salinities or poor adaptability to local conditions. Economic profit, break-even analysis and net present value were used to evaluate economic feasibility of a commercial operation. Based on a stocking rate of 400,000/ha, 85% survival of stocked fry and two crops per year, substantial returns were predicted for a 24 hectare (60 acre) facility.
SubjectWildlife and Fisheries Sciences
1982 Dissertation W112
Mexico, Gulf of
Waas, Pelawasige Benit (1982). Development and evaluation of a culture system suitable for the production of Gulf Killifish (Fundulus grandis Baird and Girard) for live bait in the thermal effluent of a power plant. Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Libraries. Available electronically from
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