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Freeze Crystallization: Improving the Energy Efficiency of a Low-Energy Separation Process
Freeze crystallization is an efficient separation process that can potentially be used in any application now using fractional distillation or evaporation. Since most solvent extraction processes use distillation, it can also be substituted for that process. Freeze crystallization is a high energy efficiency separation process that can be applied to a wide variety of industrial requirements. It is demonstrated here that membrane processes are the only separation technology that can approach freezing for energy efficiency. Two versions of the basic freeze crystallization process are discussed that reduce energy consumption even further. In achieving the lower energy consumption they also provide other benefits that reduce costs. The various benefits are quantified and several applications are discussed as illustrations of the capability of the two versions of the process.
Heist, J. A. (1981). Freeze Crystallization: Improving the Energy Efficiency of a Low-Energy Separation Process. Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu). Available electronically from