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Energy Conservation and Cogeneration in Bottom-of-the-Barrel Processes
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Due to the increased use of coal and the reduced demand for Bunker C and other heavy liquid fuels, more refiners are adding or increasing the capacity of their facilities for converting the bottom-of-the-barrel streams into more desirable products. Also many of today's crudes are heavier and contain more sulfur and metals than crudes available five or ten years ago and, therefore, are available at a lower cost than lighter crudes. Most of these heavier crudes require either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of carbon to make more desirable products out of them. Both kinds of these processes require relatively large amounts of energy compared to simple distillation. Energy conservation measures are required to make these processes efficient and hence more economical. The technology of conserving energy and the use of cogeneration in bottom-of-the-barrel processes are discussed in this paper. The selection of the best combination of process scheme and energy recovery techniques importantly influences the return-on-investment for such plants.
Fleming, J. B.; Chang, C. P.; Pierce, V. E. (1982). Energy Conservation and Cogeneration in Bottom-of-the-Barrel Processes. Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu). Available electronically from