In vivo blood oxygenation level measurements using photoacoustic microscopy
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We investigate the possibility of extracting accurate functional information such as local blood oxygenation level using multi-wavelength photoacoustic measurements. Photoacoustic microscope is utilized to acquire images of microvasculature in smallanimal skin. Owing to endogenous optical contrast, optical spectral information obtained from spectral photoacoustic measurements are successfully inverted to yield oxygenation level in blood. Analysis of error propagation from photoacoustic measurements to inverted quantities showed minimum inversion error in the optical wavelength region of 570-600 nm. To obtain accurate and vessel size independent blood oxygenation measurements, transducers with central frequency of more than 25 MHz are needed for the optical region of 570-600 nm used in this study. The effect of transducer focal position on accuracy of blood oxygenation level quantification was found to be negligible. To obtain accurate measurements in vivo, one needs to compensate for factors such as spectral dependent optical attenuation.
Sivaramakrishnan, Mathangi (2003). In vivo blood oxygenation level measurements using photoacoustic microscopy. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from