Developing Generalized Volume Sampling and Volume Shading for Non-Photorealistic Rendering
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This paper presents a methodology for sampling and rendering 3-dimensional (3D) volume data to give it the appearance of classical ink-and-paint techniques. Although tremendous strides have been made in the realm of realistic volume rendering, research on rendering techniques for non-photorealistic (NPR) images is limited and does not yield results that provides artists the ability to create and render volumes in a classical animation style. Currently, the industry standard is to render the volume using 3D volume data and the diffuse channel, or to provide a card and play an image sequence on the card. This paper discusses a technique that allows for the non-photorealistic rendering of 3D volume data which can be used to sample and shade a variety of shapes to create a stylized render of a volume, similar to classical ink-and-paint techniques. This approach can be summarized in the following steps: (1) Scatter point data within 3D volume data based off of density values, or create a custom point cloud; (2) Ray cast from the camera to the hit position of the volume; (3) From the hit position of the ray, cast towards a direction (either towards a light for shading, or continue in the same direction for a headlamp effect); and (4) Tally and normalize the number of scattered points within a radius of the direction of said ray; then (5) Use this value to interpolate between the lit color of the volume and the background color.
Adams, Aaron Christopher (2018). Developing Generalized Volume Sampling and Volume Shading for Non-Photorealistic Rendering. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from