Variable length pattern coding for power reduction in off-chip data buses
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Off-chip buses consume a huge fraction (20%-40%) of the system power. Hence, techniques such as increasing bus widths, transition encoding etc. have been used for power reduction on off-chip data buses. Since capacitances at the I/O pads and interwire capacitances contribute significantly to increase in power, encoding/decoding schemes have been developed to reduce switching activity of the off-chip bus lines, thus reducing power. Frequent-Value Encoding(FVE) , Frequent Value Encoding with Xor (FVExor)  and VALVE  are some of the better known encoding schemes but they still have scope for improvement. This thesis addresses the problem of power reduction in off-chip data buses by encoding variable number (1 to 4) of fixed-size (32-bit) data values (variable length patterns) which exhibit temporal locality. This characteristic enables us to cache these patterns using 64-entry CAM at the encoder and 64-entry SRAM at the decoder. Whenever a pattern match occurs a 2-bit code indicating the index of the match is sent. If a variable length pattern match occurs then the code and unmatched portion of data is sent. We implemented our scheme, Variable Length Pattern Coding (VLPC) for various integer and floating point benchmarks and have seen 6% to 49% encodable patterns in these benchmarks. Based on the experiments on simplescalar and our analysis in MATLAB, we obtained 4.88% to 40.11% reduction in transition activity for SPEC2000 benchmarks such as crafty, swim, mcf, applu, ammp etc. over unencoded data. This is 0.3% to 38.9% higher than that obtained using FVE, FVExor  and VALVE  encoding schemes. Finally, we have designed a low-power custom CAM and SRAM using 45nm BSIM4 technology models which has been used to verify lower latency of data matching and storing.
Venkitasubramanian Iyer, Jayakrishnan (2008). Variable length pattern coding for power reduction in off-chip data buses. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from