Topology management protocols in ad hoc wireless sensor networks
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A wireless sensor network (WSN) is comprised of a few hundred or thousand au-tonomous sensor nodes spatially distributed over a particular region. Each sensornode is equipped with a wireless communication device, a small microprocessor, anda battery-powered energy source. Typically, the applications of WSNs such as habitatmonitoring, re detection, and military surveillance, require data collection, process-ing, and transmission among the sensor nodes. Due to their energy constraints andhostile environments, the main challenge in the research of WSN lies in prolongingthe lifetime of WSNs.In this dissertation, we present four dierent topology management protocols forK-coverage and load balancing to prolong the lifetime of WSNs.First, we present a Randomly Ordered Activation and Layering (ROAL) protocolfor K-coverage in a stationary WSN. The ROAL suggests a new model of layer cov-erage that can construct a K-covered WSN using the layer information received fromits previously activated nodes in the sensing distance. Second, we enhance the faulttolerance of layer coverage through a Circulation-ROAL (C-ROAL) protocol. Us-ing the layer number, the C-ROAL can activate each node in a round-robin fashionduring a predened period while conserving reconguration energy. Next, MobilityResilient Coverage Control (MRCC) is presented to assure K-coverage in the presence of mobility, in which a more practical and reliable model for K-coverage with nodalmobility is introduced. Finally, we present a Multiple-Connected Dominating Set(MCDS) protocol that can balance the network trac using an on-demand routingprotocol. The MCDS protocol constructs and manages multiple backbone networks,each of which is constructed with a connected dominating set (CDS) to ensure a con-nected backbone network. We describe each protocol, and compare the performanceof our protocols with Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and/or existing K-coveragealgorithms through extensive simulations.The simulation results obtained by the ROAL protocol show that K-coverage canbe guaranteed with more than 95% coverage ratio, and signicantly extend networklifetime against a given WSN. We also observe that the C-ROAL protocol provides abetter reconguration method, which consumes only less than 1% of the recongura-tion energy in the ROAL protocol, with a greatly reduced packet latency. The MRCCprotocol, considering the mobility, achieves better coverage by 1.4% with 22% feweractive sensors than that of an existing coverage protocol for the mobility. The resultson the MCDS protocol show that the energy depletion ratio of nodes is decreasedconsequently, while the network throughput is improved by 35%.
Kim, Hogil (2007). Topology management protocols in ad hoc wireless sensor networks. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from