The Impact of Teachers' Expectations, Parents' Expectations, and Academic Self-Efficacy on the Achievement of English Language Learners
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Given the projected increase of Hispanic Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), researchers have begun examining issues related to their high levels of school dropout, largely stemming from academic underachievement. The focus of this study is to examine the impact of teacher expectations, parent expectations, and academic self-efficacy on the achievement of Hispanic Spanish-speaking ELLs. Participants in this study were from a medium-size school district in southwest Texas and included 99 2nd, 5th, and 8th grade students identified as limited English proficient, their parent, and their teacher. Norm-referenced achievement measures and researcher developed measures were utilized in this study. Findings from this study indicate that teacher expectations was a significant predictor of all measures of achievement, while parent expectations was a significant predictor of English reading and students? academic self-efficacy was a significant predictor of Spanish reading. Second, this study determined the best predictor for reading and math achievement was teacher expectations in 2nd grade, but there were no significant predictors in 5th and 8th grade. Third, this study addressed the possibility of academic self-efficacy functioning as a mediator, but the analysis was not conducted because academic self-efficacy did not serve as a significant predictor of all measures of achievement. Findings from additional analyses indicate that students' English language proficiency was determined to be a significant predictor of English reading achievement and parent expectations. Furthermore, students' Spanish proficiency was positively associated with their grade levels, and Spanish proficiency was negatively related to English proficiency. Academic self-efficacy was separated by domains (i.e., math self-efficacy and reading self-efficacy). In the overall sample math self-efficacy was not a significant predictor of math achievement. Math self-efficacy served as a significant predictor for 5th and 8th grade math achievement. In the overall sample, reading self-efficacy did not significantly predict English or Spanish reading. Reading self-efficacy served as a significant predictor in 8th grade English reading. Parents' employment desires for their children demonstrated a mismatch with parents' desire for their child's highest level of education. Teachers believed that family concerns were the greatest obstacle participants faced and many did not desire to speculate about students? future employment.
Rivera, Vivina (2012). The Impact of Teachers' Expectations, Parents' Expectations, and Academic Self-Efficacy on the Achievement of English Language Learners. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from