Improving Efficiency and Effectiveness of Multipath Routing in Computer Networks
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In this dissertation, we studied methods for improving efficiency and effectiveness of multipath routing in computer networks. We showed that multipath routing can improve network performance for failure recovery, load balancing, Quality of Service (QoS), and energy consumption. We presented a method for reducing the overhead of computing dynamic path metrics, one of the obstacles for implementing dynamic multipath routing in real world networks. In the first part, we proposed a method for building disjoint multipaths that could be used for local failure recovery as well as for multipath routing. Proactive failure recovery schemes have been recently proposed for continuous service of delay-sensitive applications during failure transients at the cost of extra infrastructural support in the form of routing table entries, extra addresses, etc. These extra infrastructure supports could be exploited to build alternative disjoint paths in those frameworks, while keeping the lengths of the alternative paths close to those of the primary paths. The evaluations showed that it was possible to extend the proactive failure recovery schemes to provide support for nearly-disjoint paths which could be employed in multipath routing for load balancing and QoS. In the second part, we proposed a method for reducing overhead of measuring dynamic link state information for multipath routing, specifically path delays used in Wardrop routing. Even when dynamic routing could be shown to offer convergence properties without oscillations, it has not been widely adopted. One of reasons was that the expected cost of keeping the link metrics updated at various nodes in the network. We proposed threshold-based updates to propagate the link state only when the currently measured link state differs from the last updated state consider- ably. Threshold-based updates were shown through analysis and simulations to offer bounded guarantees on path quality while significantly reducing the cost of propagating the dynamic link metric information. The simulation studies indicated that threshold based updates can reduce the number of link updates by up to 90-95% in some cases. In the third part, we proposed methods of using multipath routing for reducing energy consumption in computer networks. Two different approaches have been advocated earlier, from traffic engineering and topology control to hardware-based approaches. We proposed solutions at two different time scales. On a finer time granularity, we employed a method of forwarding through alternate paths to enable longer sleep schedules of links. The proposed schemes achieved more energy saving by increasing the usage of active links and the down time of sleeping links as well as avoiding too frequent link state changes. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first technique combining a routing scheme with hardware scheme to save energy consumption in networks. In our evaluation, alternative forwarding reduced energy consumption by 10% on top of a hardware-based sleeping scheme. On a longer time granularity, we proposed a technique that combined multipath routing with topology control. The proposed scheme achieved increased energy savings by maximizing the link utilization on a reduced topology where the number of active nodes and links are minimized. The proposed technique reduced energy consumption by an additional 17% over previous schemes with single/shortest path routing.
Quality of Service
Link state updates
Lee, Yong Oh (2012). Improving Efficiency and Effectiveness of Multipath Routing in Computer Networks. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from