Meta-analysis of Video Based Modeling Interventions for Individuals with Disabilities: Procedure, Participant, and Skill Specificity
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The purpose of the present research was to address gaps in the video based modeling (VBM) literature through the use of meta-analytic techniques to provide clarity and specificity regarding the practical utility of VBM for participants with disabilities. Two meta-analyses of published single-case VBM research were conducted. Improvement rate difference, an effect size measure, was utilized to analyze the fifty-six single-case studies. The purpose of study one was to determine if differential effects occurred based on the type of model utilized and variations in procedural implementation. In addition, the quality of research was evaluated. The purpose of study two was to determine if participant characteristics, intervention components by participant characteristics, and targeted outcome moderated the effectiveness of video modeling with other as model (VMO). Results of Study One indicated moderate to strong effects for both VMO and video self-modeling, however, when further disaggregated based on type of model utilized, VMO with adult as model demonstrated statistically significant superiority in terms of outcome effects. Results also indicated VBM with reinforcement demonstrated greater effects than when delivered alone or as part of a package. Additionally, the evaluation of quality of research indicated a tendency of the previously published VBM research not to evaluate treatment integrity. Study Two found that age and diagnosis moderate the effectiveness of VMO, although strong effects were found across levels for both moderators. VMO was found to be more effective for elementary age participants and participants with autism spectrum disorders. Additionally, VMO with reinforcement demonstrated statistically significant stronger effects for participants with ASD than when it is delivered alone or as part of a package. However, VMO delivered as part of a package was more potent for participants with developmental disabilities. Considering targeted outcomes, the results indicated strong effects across skill areas, however, VMO was found to be most impactful when utilized to improve play skills versus other measured skills. Implications related to the practical application of VBM for individuals with disabilities particularly in regards to treatment decision making were discussed. Additionally, implications for future research were addressed.
Mason, Rose (2012). Meta-analysis of Video Based Modeling Interventions for Individuals with Disabilities: Procedure, Participant, and Skill Specificity. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from