Study of Acid Response of Qatar Carbonate Rocks
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The Middle East has 62% of the world’s proved conventional oil reserves; more than 70% of these reserves are in carbonate reservoirs. It also has 40% of the world’s proved conventional gas reserves; 90% of these reserves are hold in carbonate reservoirs. Recently papers published from industry discussed the techniques, planning, and optimization of acid stimulation for Qatar carbonate. To the best of author’s knowledge, no study has focused on the acid reaction to Qatar carbonates. The lack of understanding of Qatar carbonate especially Middle East carbonates and the abundance of Middle East carbonate reservoirs is the main motivation behind this study. This work is an experimental study to understand the acid response to Qatar rocks in rocks with two types: homogenous carbonate and heterogeneous carbonate. A large portion of this research is to further investigate the impact of centimeter scale heterogeneity on the acid stimulation using Qatar rocks. Qatar carbonates have multi-scale heterogeneities which may cause the impact of the injected acids to differ from homogenous case. Recent published field data indicate a much smaller number of pore volume to breakthrough compared with experimental measurement with homogeneous carbonate and heterogeneity is believed to be one of the contributors of causing the low field measurements. In this case, acid linear core-flood experiments were conducted with carbonate core samples of different petrophysical properties to study the impact of both separated and connected vugs and channels on pore volume to breakthrough. Computerized tomography was used in characterization of the heterogeneities. One experiment simulated the response of acid to heterogeneous carbonate in downhole condition with drill-in fluid damage. Homogeneous rock was cored from a well in Qatar. The optimal injection rate was pursued through acid core flood experiments for acid stimulation design and for further reference. It is been discovered that the optimum injection rate for heterogeneous carbonate exists. For the similar acid flux, the corresponding PVBT for buggy limestone correlates inversely with the fraction of total porosity comprised by vugs. For vuggy carbonates with connected vugs and channels, whether or not formation damage exists, the acid tends to create new pore space nearby to the existing vugs and channels. Different strategies need to be made regarding acid stimulation design with homogeneous carbonate, heterogeneous carbonate with separated vugs and channels and heterogeneous carbonate with connected vugs and channels.
Wang, Zhaohong (2011). Study of Acid Response of Qatar Carbonate Rocks. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from