The Application of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced NMR to Non-Equilibrium Systems
MetadataShow full item record
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) yields remarkably detailed structural information about virtually any molecule. However, its application to non-equilibrium systems is hampered by a lack of sensitivity. To increase the amount of signal that can be obtained from a NMR experiment, various hyperpolarization schemes have been previously introduced. One such technique is dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), which can enhance NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. The work detailed here focuses on the development of methods utilizing DNP to study non-equilibrium systems such as chemical and biochemical reactions in real-time. To work with hyperpolarized samples, we have designed and constructed a rapid injection and mixing system. This system allows samples to be transported between superconducting magnets used for polarization and for NMR spectroscopy in less than two seconds. Rapid transport is essential for successful use of samples with short spin-lattice relaxation times. For the study of reactions under non-equilibrium conditions, the system provides the additional capability for samples to be mixed with a second, unpolarized reagent. A chromogenic trypsin catalyzed ester hydrolysis reaction was used to validate the DNP-NMR technique as a tool for kinetic analysis. It is shown that the DNP-NMR method agrees with the conventional UV method within the uncertainty of the measurement. Hyperpolarization in this modality presents both challenges and opportunities, each of which motivate the development of new NMR techniques. In addition to the determination of kinetics, DNP-NMR is amenable to mechanistic analysis of a reaction. We have developed a technique based on selective inversion of spin-polarization, which allows for mapping of atoms between reactant and product of a reaction. This scheme was applied to a Grignard reaction, demonstrating applicability to organic reactions. Signal averaging, as it is applied for conventional multi-dimensional correlation spectroscopy cannot always be applied easily when using hyperpolarized sample. For the rapid measurement of heteronuclear correlation spectra, we have developed a technique utilizing the differential scaling of scalar coupling under off-resonance irradiation. Although DNP-NMR yields spectra of outstanding quality even with small quantities of sample, peak intensities are not quantitative. It is nevertheless possible to compare peak multiplets obtained from fractionally isotope labeled samples. Using biosynthetically labeled lipids from E. Coli cells, we showed that the resulting labeling patterns reflect their biosynthetic pathways. As a final case-study employing several of these newly developed methods, the uronate isomerase catalyzed isomerization of glucuronate into fructuronate was studied. The ability to follow the reaction in real-time while directly observing all anomeric forms of the reactant and product permits the independent determination of kinetics for each anomeric form of substrate and product. This study revealed the anomeric specificity of the enzyme.
SubjectDynamic Nuclear Polarization
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Bowen, Sean Michael (2011). The Application of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced NMR to Non-Equilibrium Systems. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from