An Examination of Sex, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation in Experiences and Consequences of Workplace Incivility
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Theories of intersectionality and selective incivility framed this study of interactions between sex, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, and their relationship with incivility and psychological and occupational outcomes. Women, sexual minorities, and people of color were expected to report both the greatest levels of incivility as well as the worst outcomes as a result of receiving incivility. Specifically, sexual minority women of color were predicted to be the most vulnerable to experiencing the highest levels of incivility and to experience the worst outcomes as a result of incivility. Survey data was first collected from a southern United States student sample. Results revealed that sexual minorities reported the most frequent experiences of workplace incivility. In terms of outcomes, sex and sexual orientation interacted with incivility to predict psychological stress and organizational commitment, with sexual minority men evidencing the worst outcomes. To determine the generalizability of the results of Study 1, a second survey was conducted utilizing a United States law school faculty sample. Results from Study 2 revealed that sexual minority women reported significantly higher levels of incivility than members of other groups. Additionally, sexual orientation and ethnicity interacted with incivility to predict job satisfaction and commitment, with sexual minority people of color reporting the worst outcomes. Finally, sex and ethnicity interacted with incivility to predict psychological distress, burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions, with men of color indicating the worst outcomes as a result of incivility.
Zurbrugg, Lauren Elders (2011). An Examination of Sex, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation in Experiences and Consequences of Workplace Incivility. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from