Thermomechanical Cyclic Response of TiNiPd High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys
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TiNiPd high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) have attracted considerable attention as potential solid-state actuators capable of operating at temperatures up to 500 °C, exhibiting excellent corrosion resistance, adequate ductility levels and significant strain recovery under both constrained and unconstrained thermomechanical conditions. During operation, these actuators may be subjected to multiple cycles and from an application point of view, the functional stability, i.e. conservation of original actuator dimensions and transformation temperatures during repeated employment, is of considerable importance. This study addresses the issue of functional stability in a model HTSMA, Ti50.5Ni24.5Pd25, for its use as a compact solid-state actuator. Since the primary reason for functional instability is the creation of lattice defects (dislocations, vacancies, etc.) during repeated transformation cycles, several methods were successfully undertaken to improve the functional stability through inhibiting the generation of these defects. Solid-solution strengthening through Sc microalloying and thermomechanical treatments via severe plastic deformation were the two approaches used to strengthen the HTSMA against defect generation. Thermal cycling the HTSMA under stress was the third method to voluntarily introduce defects into the microstructure such that further defect generation during application would be impeded. Overall, severe plastic deformation was found to be more efficient than other strengthening methods in improving the functional stability of TiNiPd HTSMA, yet it brought about disadvantages such as reduction in transformation strain and transformation temperatures. While functional instability is due to the creation of lattice defects, the generation of these defects is mainly controlled by the crystallographic incompatibility between martensitically transforming phases and the strength levels for plastic deformation. It was shown that TiNiPd HTSMAs, which exhibited martensitic transformation from a cubic (B2) to orthorhombic (B19) symmetry, illustrated better compatibility and thus better functional stability levels compared to TiNi SMAs, which had a B2 to monoclinic (B19’) transition. Although crystallographic incompatibility seems to be the governing factor for the functional stability of the TiNiPd HTSMA, the strength differential between the onset of plastic deformation and local constraint due to the martensitic transformation was also found to be an influential factor determining the overall stable behavior. Functional stability was also investigated for the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in TiNiPd HTSMAs. Better strength and compatibility levels compared to TiNi SMAs were also reflected in the TWSME characteristics in the form of enhanced stability under stress-free thermal cycling. The stability during constrained thermal cycling was not as good and TWSME degraded rapidly while doing work against an opposing stress. Nevertheless, work output levels were much higher as compared to those obtained from conventional TiNi and Cu-based SMAs.
SubjectHigh-temperature shape memory alloys
Equal channel angular extrusion
Two-way shape memory effect
Atli, Kadri (2011). Thermomechanical Cyclic Response of TiNiPd High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from