Experimentally Validated Compatibility Strut and Tie Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers
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A compatibility-based strut-and-tie model C-STM is proposed for analyzing deep beams and disturbed regions with particular emphasis on reinforced concrete bridge piers. In addition to the normal strut-and-tie force equilibrium requirements the model accounts for non-linear behavior through displacement compatibility using inelastic constitutive laws of cracked reinforced concrete. The model is implemented into widely used commercial structural analysis software and validated against results from previously conducted large scale experiments. A near full-scale experiment on a reinforced concrete sub-assemblage that represents cantilevered and straddle pier bents is conducted to investigate the shear-flexure performance of deep (disturbed) regions. Insights into the development of nonlinear behavior and the final collapse failure mechanism are then evaluated and accurately modeled using the C-STM. It is concluded that the proposed C-STM serves as an advanced method of analysis that can predict with suitable accuracy the force-deformation response of both D- and B- regions, deep beams, and beam-columns. This provides engineers with a supplementary analysis tool that can be used to assess the nonlinear behavior of bridge piers with stocky members and/or large disturbed regions.
Scott, Reece Melby (2010). Experimentally Validated Compatibility Strut and Tie Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from