A Triple-Porosity Model for Fractured Horizontal Wells
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Fractured reservoirs have been traditionally idealized using dual-porosity models. In these models, all matrix and fractures systems have identical properties. However, it is not uncommon for naturally fractured reservoirs to have orthogonal fractures with different properties. In addition, for hydraulically fractured reservoirs that have preexisting natural fractures such as shale gas reservoirs, it is almost certain that these types of fractures are present. Therefore, a triple-porosity (dual-fracture) model is developed in this work for characterizing fractured reservoirs with different fractures properties. The model consists of three contiguous porous media: the matrix, less permeable micro-fractures and more permeable macro-fractures. Only the macro-fractures produce to the well while they are fed by the micro-fractures only. Consequently, the matrix feeds the micro-fractures only. Therefore, the flow is sequential from one medium to the other. Four sub-models are derived based on the interporosity flow assumption between adjacent media, i.e., pseudosteady state or transient flow assumption. These are fully transient flow model (Model 1), fully pseudosteady state flow model (Model 4) and two mixed flow models (Model 2 and 3). The solutions were mainly derived for linear flow which makes this model the first triple-porosity model for linear reservoirs. In addition, the Laplace domain solutions are also new and have not been presented in the literature before in this form. Model 1 is used to analyze fractured shale gas horizontal wells. Non-linear regression using least absolute value method is used to match field data, mainly gas rate. Once a match is achieved, the well model is completely described. Consequently, original gas in place (OGIP) can be estimated and well future performance can be forecasted.
Alahmadi, Hasan Ali H. (2010). A Triple-Porosity Model for Fractured Horizontal Wells. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from