Plant-Based Tannins as Antioxidants in Pre-Cooked Ground Beef Patties
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Meat lipid oxidation causes negative quality effects, especially in further processed products. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and rosemary extract (RM) are common antioxidants, but plant-based tannin compounds have been shown to be effective antioxidants. The objective was to evaluate antioxidant effectiveness, pH, color, and sensory effects of several tannin sources. In study 1, 19 percent fat ground beef was mixed with no treatment (control), BHA/BHT (0.02percent), RM (0.2percent), or 0.25percent or 0.5percent powders of Chardonnay grapeseed (CG), Norton grapeseed (NG), CitruSmart (CS), or dried cherry (CP). Raw and cooked patties were aerobically stored for 0 to 5 days at 4 degrees C. Cooked patties were analyzed using the TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) method. Raw patties were analyzed for pH, instrumental color, subjective color, and ingredient specks. Study 2 was similar, except the treatments were 0.25percent and 0.5percent powders of CG, chestnut (CN), mimosa (M), and quebracho (Q) tannins, as well as 0.5percent NG, 0.02percent BHA/BHT, 0.2percent RM, and a control. In study 1, only the NG and CG pre-cooked patties had similar or lower TBARS values compared to RM and BHA/BHT patties. All tannin treatments, except 0.25percent CG and 0.25percent CS, lowered pH compared to the control. Patties with NG and 0.5percent CG were darker, and tannin-treated patties were not redder than the control. Patties with CG and 0.5percent NG were less yellow. Subjectively, tannin-treated patties did not have less discoloration during storage, and the CG and NG patties had numerous visible ingredient specks. In study 2, CN, M, Q, and 0.5percent CG treated patties had low TBARS during storage. pH was slightly lower in CG and CN patties than the control. All tannin-treated patties were darker than the control patties, except patties containing 0.25percent CG and Q, and control patties had the highest red values. Tannin-treatments patties, except CN and Q patties, were less yellow. Subjectively, only 0.25percent M patties had less discoloration than control patties, while 0.5percent CN patties were more discolored. Norton and Chardonnay grapeseed flour and chesnut, mimosa, and quebracho powders would be recommended for pre-cooked ground beef patties based on their antioxidant effectiveness in these studies.
Cruzen, Shannon Michelle (2010). Plant-Based Tannins as Antioxidants in Pre-Cooked Ground Beef Patties. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from