Experimental & Numerical Investigation of Pool Boiling on Engineered Surfaces with Integrated Thin-flim Temperature Sensors
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The objective of this investigation is to measure and analyze surface temperature fluctuations in pool boiling. The surface temperature fluctuations were recorded on silicon surfaces with and without multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Novel Thin Film Thermocouples (TFT) are micro-fabricated on test substrates to measure surface temperatures. A dielectric liquid refrigerant (PF-5060) is used as test fluid. Both nucleate and lm boiling regimes are investigated for the silicon test substrates. Dynamics of nucleate boiling is investigated on the CNT coated substrates. High frequency temperature fluctuation data is analyzed for the presence of determinism using non-linear time series analysis techniques in TISEAN(copyright) software. The impact of subcooling and micro/nano-scale surface texturing using MWCNT coatings on the dynamics of pool boiling is assessed. Dynamic invariants such as correlation dimensions and Lyapunov spectrum are evaluated for the reconstructed attractor. A non-linear noise reduction scheme is employed to reduce the level of noise in the data. Previous investigations in pool boiling chaos, reported in literature were based on temperature measurements underneath the test surface consisting of single or few active nucleation sites. Previous studies have indicated the presence of low-dimensional behavior in nucleate boiling and high-dimensional behavior in CHF and film boiling. Currently, there is no study detailing the effects of multiple nucleation sites, subcooling and surface texturing on pool boiling dynamics. The investigation comprises of four parts: i) in situ micro-machining of Chromelalumel (K-type) TFT, ii) calibration of these sensors, iii) utilizing these sensors in pool boiling experiments iv) analysis of these fluctuations using techniques of nonlinear time series analysis. Ten TFT are fabricated on a rectangular silicon surface within an area of ~ 3.00 cm x 3.00 cm. The sensing junctions of the TFT measure 50 mm in width and 250 nm in depth. Surface temperature fluctuations of the order of i) 0.65-0.93 degrees C are observed near ONB ii) 2.3-6.5 degrees C in FDNB iii) 2.60-5.00 degrees C at CHF and iv) 2.3-3.5 degrees C in film boiling. Investigations show the possible presence of chaotic dynamics near CHF and in film-boiling in saturated and subcooled pool boiling. Fully-developed nucleate boiling (FDNB) is chaotic. No clear assessment of the dynamics could be made in the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and partial nucleate boiling (PNB) regimes due to the effects of noise. However, the frequency spectra in these regimes appear to have two independent frequencies and their integral combinations indicating a possible quasiperiodic bifurcation route to chaos. The dimensionality in FDNB, at CHF and in film-boiling is lower in saturated pool boiling as compared to values in corresponding regimes in subcooled pool boiling. Surface temperature fluctuations can damage electronic components and need to be carefully controlled. Understanding the nature of these fluctuations will aid in deciding the modeling approach for surface temperature transients on an electronic chip. Subsequently, the TFT signals can be employed in a suitable feedback control loop to prevent the occurrence of hotspots.
Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar (2009). Experimental & Numerical Investigation of Pool Boiling on Engineered Surfaces with Integrated Thin-flim Temperature Sensors. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from