Effect of Injection and Frozen Storage on the Quality Attributes of Fully Cooked Bone-In Hams
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This study determined the effects of sucrose and sorbitol as cryoprotectant (CR) on the quality and sensory attributes of bone-in hams (N=90) injected (20% of weight) with following brine treatments (BT): control (2% sucrose; CNT), 2% CR (1% sucrose, 1% sorbitol), 4% CR (2% sucrose, 2% sorbitol). Hams that were frozen and injected with CNT after thawing (FZ I) were used as a negative control. After reaching the designated ST all bone-in hams were thawed under refrigeration (4oC) and FZ I hams were then injected with CNT (n=8). Hams were cooked to 70oC, chilled (7oC), sliced, vacuum packaged and analyzed for lipid oxidation, color, protein solubility and purge at 0, 28, and 56 of refrigerated storage while sensory evaluation and shear force determinations were conducted at 28 d. Color, pH, and lipid oxidation values tended to remain similar or decrease as frozen storage time increased. Water holding capacity (percent bound water) and protein solubility increased as frozen storage increased. The 4% CR BT exhibited the lowest shear force value (4.04 N/g) but was not statistically different than CNT or FZ I on ham knuckle muscles. Trained sensory panelists found hammy and salty were the strongest flavor and basic taste attributes. The results of this study confirm that quality attributes and protein functionality were maintained but not significantly improved by injecting a brine solution with cryoprotectants prior to freezing.
Phillips, Denise G. (2009). Effect of Injection and Frozen Storage on the Quality Attributes of Fully Cooked Bone-In Hams. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from