The Influence of Racial Socialization, Racial Ideology, and Racial Saliency on Black Adolescents’ Free-Time Activities
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Race has been considered to serve as a barrier to leisure for most Blacks. Such claims have been based on a few studies many of which are theoretically faulty. This dissertation research attempts to address the current shortcomings of the literature by exploring the relationships between racial socialization, racial identity, saliency, and the free-time choices of Black youth. Using a web-based survey, the relationship between the racial socialization behaviors of parents and development of racial ideologies is described. Findings provide support for the idea that specific race-related behaviors and messages and influence the development of one's racial identity. The results from the web-based survey are also used to test the Salience of Race in Leisure Questionnaire which is intended to determine the extent to which one considers race when selecting free-time activities. Finally, focus groups explore the race-related meanings that youth attach to their free-time activities. Findings provide information about the impact of racial socialization on the beliefs youth develop concerning Black and non-Black activities. In summary, this study provides a starting point for examining socialization and saliency as factors impacting the free-time decisions of Blacks. Much replication, extension and application research will be required to extend findings from current results using student and general population samples. The dissertation is organized in five sections. An introductory section presents the theoretical orientation for research. The second, third, and fourth sections explain the relationship between racial socialization, racial identity and saliency of race, and free-time activities. The final section provides a summary of the key findings of this dissertation.
Pinckney, Harrison P. (2009). The Influence of Racial Socialization, Racial Ideology, and Racial Saliency on Black Adolescents’ Free-Time Activities. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from
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