Design, Syntheses and Applications of Fluorescent Dyes
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New methodologies for the efficient syntheses of 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4adiaza- s-indacenes (BODIPYs) and rosamines were developed. A serendipitous discovery led to a new reaction which afforded BODIPYs in high yields. Systematic studies of the kinetics and mechanisms of the new reaction were performed. A series of BODIPYs were successfully prepared using the new approach. A simple and efficient synthesis of rosamines with cyclic-amine substituents was devised. These new rosamines showed interesting anti-tumor activities. Several types of novel fluorescent compounds were prepared. Highly fluorescent GFP-chromophore analogs were designed and synthesized. The correlation between the optical properties and the structures was investigated. New pyronin dyes with mesoheteroatom substituents were efficiently prepared. The fluorescence properties of these compounds were highly dependent on the nature of the meso-substituents. A set of BODIPY dyes that fluoresce brightly above 600 nm were made. They were then used as acceptors to prepare water-soluble through-bond energy transfer cassettes. All the cassettes had complete energy transfer and high quantum yields in MeOH. A few also had good fluorescence properties in aqueous media and even on proteins. The through-bond energy transfer cassettes were used to monitor protein-protein interactions. In order to test our hypothesis, an artificial protein interaction system was built by utilizing the biotin/(strept)avidin interactions. Thus Atto425-BSA-biotin, streptavidin-cassette1 and avidin-cassette2 were prepared. The interactions between Atto425-BSA-biotin and cassette labeled (strept)avidin were successfully detected in vitro and in living cells by fluorescence techniques.
GFP chromophore derivatives
labeling of proteins
Wu, Liangxing (2009). Design, Syntheses and Applications of Fluorescent Dyes. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from