Processing of high quality mango chips
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Potato chips are very popular in the United States. Recently, an enormous interest in developing snacks from fruits and vegetables with high quality has been assessed. Mango, due to its characteristic flavor and nutritional value, is excellent for snack production. Osmotic dehydration (OD) as a pre-treatment and vacuum frying (1.33 kPa) processes were proposed to obtain high quality mango chips. Mango ?Tommy Atkins? slices were pre-treated with different OD concentrations (40, 50, and 65w/v), times (45, 60, and 70 min), and temperatures (22, 40, and 57oC). Physical and chemical properties (aw, pH, oBrix, sugar gain, water loss, and shrinkage) after OD were studied. The pre-treated slices were vacuum fried (1.33 kPa) at 120, 130, and 138oC and product quality attributes (PQA) (oil content, texture, porosity, color, microstructure, and carotenoid content) were determined. Microstructure of the chips was analyzed using an environmental scanning electron microscope. Effect of frying temperatures at optimum OD (65 w/v at 40oC) times was tested. The consumer tests showed that samples were all acceptable. The best mango chips process was the one with 65 w/v concentration for 60 min (pre-treatment) and vacuum frying at 120oC. Kinetic studies on oil content, texture, porosity, color, and carotenoid retention were performed. Oil absorption was modeled by a fractional conversion kinetic model. Absorption rate constant increased with frying temperature. Diameter changes in the chips, although not significant (P>0.05), followed an initial expansion to later decrease. Thickness of the slices increased (puffed) (around 60%) with time for all frying temperatures. Texture changes were for two frying periods: (1) water removal and crust formation and (2) slices became tougher and crispier and the end of frying. Porosity in the samples increased with frying, and a fractional conversion best described this phenomenon. Color *a (redness) increased with frying time and temperature and was modeled using a logistic model. Color *b (yellowness) increased up to 30 s of frying and then decreased. Carotenoids degradation followed a first order model, with a significant (P<0.05) decrease with frying temperature. Mango chips fried under atmospheric fryer had less carotenoid retention (25%) than with a vacuum fryer.
Nunez Gallegos, Yolanda (2009). Processing of high quality mango chips. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from