The role of human and social capital in explaining the lack of female head coaches in women's intercollegiate sports
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Women of today are experiencing phenomenal growth in collegiate athletic participation. Because of Title IX, funds are being allocated to women's programs more efficiently and effectively. In recent times, the media has made steps in covering more female sporting events and the public is gaining a rising excitement for women's athletics. Despite the heightened number of female college athletes, the number of female head coaches is actually declining. Specifically, NCAA Division I women's collegiate soccer was analyzed because of its exceptionally large gap in the number of male head coaches versus that of females: 66% males compared to 34% females. Surveys were mailed to every assistant coach competing on the Division I level (N =575). A total of 155 coaches returned the questionnaire for a response rate of 31%. Items were featured on the survey to gather information regarding human capital (education, employment, experience, etc.), social capital (networking and social structure of an individual), and career outcomes (promotions, salary, career satisfaction, perceived opportunity, and aspiration to become a head coach). Females perceived greater career opportunity than did the males; however, men demonstrated a stronger desire to become a head coach than did the women. Human and social capital did not mediate the gender effect upon the career outcomes. In essence, gender made the greatest impact upon all five of the career outcomes tested. In the midst of the most recent studies being conducted, it appears that males are head coaches simply because of the advantage that their gender provides them. A focused look at the factors that contribute to females becoming head soccer coaches will provide further understanding and insight as to why the number female head coaches are so scarce.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 27-30).
Stumph, Kelly J (2003). The role of human and social capital in explaining the lack of female head coaches in women's intercollegiate sports. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from