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Evaluation of mixing characteristics of corn dry masa flours
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Mixing characteristics of commercial and reformulated corn dry masa flours (DMF) were evaluated using a mixograph and a farinograph. The objectives were to evaluate the potential use of the mixograph and farinograph to study DMF mixing and hydration properties and also to evaluate the use of the Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), consistometer and penetrometer to study DMF properties. The effect of sample size, moisture level, mixing speed, temperature, particle size distribution and CMC level on the mixing characteristics of DMF were evaluated. Reformulated and commercial flours with and without CMC were also evaluated using a consistometer, penetrometer, RVA and also were subjectively evaluated for their machinability properties. Reduced moisture levels produced firmer masas which produced higher and wider curves. At increased moisture levels masa develops maximum consistency and stickiness faster. Excess water produced soft masas that exhibited decreased maximum consistency. Three stages were observed during mixing. The first stage involves hydration of the DMF causing the curve to go up. During the second stage, masa develops cohesiveness; the curve becomes wider and reaches maximum consistency. During the third stage, masa becomes sticky due to overmixing and the curve becomes narrower and lower. Mixing stages were developed at different times reflecting differences among DMF. Finer DMF required less mixing time to reach maximum consistency and to develop stickiness, whereas coarser flours produced firmer masas with increased maximum consistency. Masas from DMF containing 0.5% CMC exhibited the highest maximum consistency, while time to reach maximum consistency increased along with CMC level. Reduced penetrometer readings and shorter distances traveled in the consistometer, as well as increased viscosities in the RVA were significantly correlated to increased maximum consistency in the mixograph and farinograph. Subjective machinability determinations were also significantly correlated to mixograph and farinograph parameters. The mixograph and farinograph are simple techniques with acceptable repeatability to detect differences in mixing characteristics of DMF. Mixograph and farinograph as well as consistometer, penetrometer and RVA have potential for rapid evaluation of DMF properties and mixing performance in a quality control program.
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Includes bibliographical references: p. 109-111.
Issued also on microfiche from Lange Micrographics.
Lobeira Massu, Rodrigo (1996). Evaluation of mixing characteristics of corn dry masa flours. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from
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