?Muestreme el dinero!: assessing the linkage between Latino school superintendents and English language learner program resources
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A central question in racial and ethnic politics is whether bureaucratic representation benefits minorities. The theory of bureaucratic representation suggests that passive representation—representatives sharing characteristics of the represented—can lead to active representation—acting in a manner that represents the interests of the represented group. A growing body of empirical research has found that bureaucratic representation leads to improved policy outcomes for minorities. Most of the evidence for active representation, though, comes from representation by street-level bureaucrats. We do not know the impact of representation by upper-level bureaucrats, however. In this dissertation, I examine the impact of school superintendents on the generation and distribution of resources to English language learner programs. In particular, I investigate whether the presence of Latino superintendents leads to greater resources for these programs. Additionally, I also explore the impact of these programs on the Latino dropout rate. Using data from the Texas Education Agency, U.S. Census, and National Association of Latino Elected Officials, I find that upper-level bureaucrats do actively represent the needs of represented groups. Specifically, Latino superintendents distribute more resources, in the form of teachers, to English language learner (ELL) programs. Additionally, Latino superintendents are more likely to distribute resources to bilingual programs relative to English as a second language programs. In regard to the impact of different types of ELL programs, I do not find evidence that program type predicts Latino dropout rates. However, I do find that serving the needs of limited English proficient students, regardless of program type, helps to decrease the Latino dropout rate.
Theobald, Nick Andrew (2007). ?Muestreme el dinero!: assessing the linkage between Latino school superintendents and English language learner program resources. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from