Effect of sorghum type and processing on the antioxidant properties of sorghum [sorghum bicolor (l.) moench] based foods
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Antioxidant properties of sorghum are related to sorghum type and method of processing into foods. Tannin and non-tannin sorghums and their products were evaluated for total phenols, tannins and antioxidant activity. Total phenols were determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method, and tannins were determined by the vanillin-HCl method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the ABTS (2,2¢- azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and DPPH (2,2¢-diphenyl-Ipicrylhydrazyl) assays. Tannin sorghums and their products had higher total phenols, tannins and antioxidant activity than non-tannin sorghum grain and products. Fermentation, extrusion cooking and porridge making reduced measurable phenols, tannins and in vitro antioxidant activity. Reduction was probably due to phenols binding to the food components, thus reducing their solubility in the extracting solvents; 1% HCl in methanol and 70% aqueous acetone. The procyanidin profile obtained using normal phase HPLC and fluorescent detection showed that extrusion cooking and porridge making lowered extractability of polymers (DP>8), while that of oligomers (DP 2-8) and monomers in porridges was not significantly changed. This indicated increased interactions of procyanidin polymers with the food matrix, especially with protein. Pepsin treatment of sorghum extrudates and porridges significantly improved the antioxidant activity and recovery. The highest antioxidant activity was in the supernatants of pepsin hydrolysates. Amylase treatment alone did not significantly affect phenol content and antioxidants, except in bread containing non-tannin white sorghum bran, where there was a slight increase in phenols. The combination of pepsin followed by amylase treatment of porridges and extrudates had effects similar to those of pepsin alone. Improved extractability of antioxidants on pepsin treatment was due to either the release of phenolic antioxidants or protein hydrolysates high in aromatic amino acid residues such as tyrosine, also known for their antioxidant activity. In either situation the improved antioxidant activity could mean that once food is digested it can potentially protect the gastrointestinal tract against oxidative stress generated from the diet and that produced by food interactions during digestion. There is scope to explore other biological methods like use of other proteases to improve antioxidant recovery. Further work would thus determine contribution of phenolic compounds to improved antioxidant activity, and also identify the phenolics.
Ngwenya, Nomusa Rhoda (2007). Effect of sorghum type and processing on the antioxidant properties of sorghum [sorghum bicolor (l.) moench] based foods. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from