Development of specialty breads as nutraceutical products
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Bread is widely consumed and is an ideal vehicle for nutraceutical delivery. Sorghum bran, flax, and inulin are nutraceutical ingredients that may be incorporated into bread to provide health benefits. Because celiacs can not consume bread containing wheat flour, a need exists for gluten-free bread containing nutraceutical ingredients. In preliminary research, bread containing 12% brown sorghum bran and 5% flaxseed was developed. In an effort to reduce rapid staling, soy flour was substituted for 0, 2, 4, and 6% of the wheat flour. Bread was evaluated based on specific volume, crumb firmness, color, moisture, nutrition content, and sensory evaluation. Sorghum bran was high in dietary fiber (45%) and antioxidants (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC). Flaxseed also contained dietary fiber (28%) and omega-3 fatty acids. Soy flour was high in protein. High levels of soy flour increased crumb firmness and decreased specific volume. The bread containing 2% soy flour was preferred, however, by panelists in sensory evaluation. Per 56 g serving, this bread provided ~3 g dietary fiber, ~396 mg omega-3 fatty acids, and ~3417 mol TE antioxidant activity. The use of low levels of soy flour in bread containing sorghum bran and flaxseed may help improve palatability and increase consumption of dietary fiber, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids in bread. A gluten-free bread containing sorghum bran, flax, and inulin was also developed for consumers with celiac disease. Breads were evaluated based on the same parameters as described above. Inulin was high in soluble fiber (90%). The optimum formula was 10% inulin, 5% sorghum bran, and 5% flax. This formula had improved specific volume, reduced crumb firmness, and an attractive dark colored crumb. One 56 g serving of the bread provided ~2 g dietary fiber, ~1882 mol TE antioxidant value, and ~287 mg omega-3 fatty acids. When compared to commercially available gluten-free bread mixes, the optimum formula was significantly improved with regards to crumb firmness and provided acceptable specific volume. Because of the improved bread qualities and high levels of health-promoting nutraceutical ingredients, the optimum formula could likely compete in the gluten-free bread market.
Hines, Lindsey Renee (2007). Development of specialty breads as nutraceutical products. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from