Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy
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Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer and it is on the rise. If skin cancer is diagnosed early enough, the survival rate is close to 90%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIR) spectroscopy offers a technology that may be used in the clinic to aid physicians in diagnosing both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The system includes a halogen light source, a fiber optic probe, an imaging spectrograph, a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, and a computer. Light is delivered to the skin surface via optical fibers in the probe. After interacting with the skin, the light is collected and sent to the spectrograph that generates optical spectra. Images and histopathological diagnoses were obtained from 250 lesions at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Melanoma and Skin Center). To classify OIR data, an image processing algorithm was developed and evaluated for both pigmented and non-pigmented lesions. The continuous wavelet transform and the genetic algorithm were employed to extract optimal classification features. Bayes decision rule was used to categorize spatiospectral images based on the selected classification features. The overall classification accuracy for pigmented melanomas and severely dysplastic nevi is 100%. The overall classification accuracy for non-pigmented skin cancers and severely dysplastic nevi is 93.33%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the developed algorithms have high classification rates and may prove useful in the clinic as the process is fast, noninvasive and accurate.
Smith, Elizabeth Brooks (2006). Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from