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Thermal Storage Options for HVAC Systems
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With the ever-increasing cost of electricity and the high demand charges levied by utility companies, thermal storage for cooling is rapidly becoming a widely recognized method to lower cooling costs. There are three maior types of thermal storage systems: • Ice Storage: This utilizes the latent heat of fusion of ice for thermal storage. During off-peak periods, the refrigeration system is used to build ice. The ice is melted to produce chilled water when cooling is required. • Chilled Water Storage: Chilled water is generated and stored during off-peak periods and used for cooling during on-peak hours. Since this method is based on the specific heat of water rather than the latent heat of fusion of ice as in ice storage, it requires about 4 times the storage capacity of an equivalent ice storage system. • Salt Storage: This system utilizes eutectic salts which freeze and melt around 47°F. Existing chillers can be easily retrofitted for salt storage or chilled water storage. For ice storage systems, a direct refrigerant system or glycol chillers are suitable. This paper discusses the details of each system, their advantages and disadvantages, and application.
SubjectThermal Storage Systems
Chilled Water Storage
Weston, R. F.; Gidwani, B. N. (1986). Thermal Storage Options for HVAC Systems. Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu). Available electronically from
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