The cost-effectiveness of retrofitting sanitary fixtures in restrooms of a university building
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This study measured the actual water consumption of sanitary fixtures installed in restrooms of a university building while most studies have been based on the manufacturer's reported flow rate. Furthermore, this study analyzed the appropriateness of retrofitting with low-consumption water closets and urinals based on the actual water consumption. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of water savings from retrofitting water closets and urinals in restrooms of the Langford Architecture building A at Texas A&M University. The researcher directly measured the actual water-volume per flush of as-is, tune-up, low-consumption manual, and low-consumption automatic water closets and urinals. The data collected by these observations was analyzed, and the researcher evaluated the water savings of retrofitting water closets and urinals. Finally, this study provides the actual water-consumption data of sanitary fixtures and proves that retrofitting with low-consumption fixtures can save on water costs. The results will present practical standards to facility managers and other building professionals and will also contribute to determining the feasibility of retrofitting water closets and urinals.
Hwang, Byoung Hoon (2003). The cost-effectiveness of retrofitting sanitary fixtures in restrooms of a university building. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from