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Conducting Successful Programs to Increase the Energy-Efficiency of Manufactured Housing
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Nationally, about 13% of new single-family homes are manufactured homes. In southern states, such as South Carolina, they comprise as much as 40% of new housing. Such manufactured homes, commonly called HUD-code homes, are regulated nationally through preemptive Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) standards, which have only two different sets of requirements to cover all regions of the continental United States. The HUD code prevents local adoption of standards that apply to manufactured housing. Since manufactured homes represent a significant segment of the housing market, their impacts on energy consumption can be substantial. In the Pacific Northwest, manufactured homes comprise around 20% of new single-family housing starts. In this region, the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has instituted several programs designed to promote energy-efficiency improvements in buildings. One of the latest targets of these programs is manufactured housing. Since 1985, Bonneville has conducted a multiyear program to promote higher efficiency in manufactured homes. The program has included marketing studies, research projects, and a large-scale demonstration program. Information about Bonneville's program should be of interest to planners and policymakers in other parts of the country. This paper discusses the program, its key outcomes, and lessons learned.
Lee, A. D.; Riewer, S. M.; Volke, S. M. (1990). Conducting Successful Programs to Increase the Energy-Efficiency of Manufactured Housing. Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu). Available electronically from