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Guidelines for Energy Efficient Schools
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Operational experience of several schools designed with energy efficiency as a design criteria is discussed in this paper. Actual monthly energy usage and cost are provided. Annual energy cost performance ($/ft^2-yr) and energy performance (BTU/FT^2-yr) of these example case study schools with flexible mechanical and electrical systems are compared to published design performance guidelines and similar schools constructed without energy efficiency as a design criteria. The authors have conducted energy studies of more than 400 schools which serve as a comparative data base range of performance. Of the schools compared, those with the lowest operating cost and energy usage employed flexible HVAC systems which inherently provided for control of electrical demand. The resulting electrical demand profile of most of theme case study schools were relatively constant throughout the year which is uncommon to most schools. The design approach employed to achieve lowar operating costs and inherent demand control is a hybrid HVAC system with a designed mixture or balance between electric and natural gas energy sources. The summary of this paper will compare operating cost performance, energy performance, HVAC system type of the case study schools, eight schools with water source heat pumps, and other data base schools with various other types of HVAC systems. Design guidelines for energy efficient schools are presented.
McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.; Bicknell, K. N.; Estes, M. C. (1988). Guidelines for Energy Efficient Schools. Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu). Available electronically from